Today in the building of the Central Communications Service Olga Shiyan, Executive Director of Transparency Kazakhstan, presented the results of the study «Monitoring the state of corruption in Kazakhstan for 2020», implemented with the assistance of the United Nations Development Program in Kazakhstan.
Transparency Kazakhstan experts interviewed 9,000 respondents at the level of cities, regional and district centers and studied 1,347 applications received on the Open Dialogue portal.
“The study involved about 200 field sociologists and 12 analysts, who conducted a survey in 3 cities of republican significance, 14 regional and 143 district centers throughout the country this fall. The methodology is based on two global studies by Transparency International — the Global Corruption Barometer, which measures the corruption experience of the population, and the Corruption Perceptions Index, which assesses the relevance of the topic of corruption in public discourse”, said O. Shiyan.
37.4% of citizens and 45.9% of entrepreneurs indicate a decrease in corruption in their village over the past year. 11.3% of respondents faced everyday corruption when contacting government agencies (13.4% in 2019). 8.2% of bussiness representatives faced the need to resolve the issue informally when contacting government agencies (9.2% in 2019).
It is necessary to note a positive picture in the business community: more than 80% of the interviewed entrepreneurs believe that it is quite possible to develop your business in Kazakhstan without giving bribes and working exclusively in the legal field.
The President (70%), the Anti-Corruption Agency (63% and 65%), the Government (59% and 62%), the Civil Service Agency (55% and 59%) and the Nur Otan party (53% and 55%).
Over 60% of the polled Kazakhstanis said they were ready to assist in the fight against corruption.
According to the results of the survey, the regions and government bodies where most often people encounter corruption were identified, as well as a list of the most corrupt government positions, typical causes and circumstances of corrupt transactions, and the amount of bribes were drawn up.
According to citizens, most often it was necessary to solve issues informally in Zhambyl, Atyrau, Almaty, Karaganda, Kyzylorda, West Kazakhstan regions, and according to entrepreneurs — in the cities of Nur-Sultan, Shymkent, Akmola, Pavlodar, Kyzylorda, Karaganda, Zhambyl, Almaty, West Kazakhstan region.
The most corrupt state institutions are polyclinics and hospitals, police, tax and fire services, land relations and urban planning authorities, public service centers, state kindergartens and universities, in which two-thirds of the reported informal interactions occurred.
The main reasons were the need for citizens to receive treatment or referral for treatment (12.7%), get a job (10.1%), place a child in a kindergarten (6.1%), resolve the land issue (6.5%), get a certificate from the PSC (5.1%), «close» the session (4.4%), submit a tax report (9%), avoid liability for violations (8.4%).
It should be noted that the involvement of respondents in corruption is not influenced by the frequency of requests, but by the degree of the recipient’s interest in the service.
The respondents noted that in half of the cases, the initiators of the informal solution of the issue are employees of state institutions, and in every fourth — intermediaries. “Over the year, the share of intermediaries in corruption deals increased by 6%, which the respondents attributed to insufficient information from state institutions during the quarantine period,” O. Shiyan said.
Two-thirds of the respondents said that if an employee of any institution wants to receive a bribe, then he will show red tape and exceed his authority. Bribes ranged from 1,000 to 300,000 tenge (in 2019 — from 500 to 500,000 tenge).
The results of the analysis of the Open Dialogue portal showed that information about corruption was more often sent to the blogs of the Chairman of the Anti-Corruption Agency, the Ministers of Internal Affairs, Finance, Health, Justice, Labor and Social Protection, Digital Development, and the Chairman of the State Revenue Committee. In the regional context, complaints were more often received on the blog platforms of akims of Almaty, Pavlodar regions and Almaty city.
The applicants expressed dissatisfaction with the quality of work of the police, district akimats, state hospitals and clinics, tax authorities and private bailiffs. According to citizens, the main reasons for complaints were red tape, inaction of state bodies in considering appeals, incompetence of employees, technical errors and incorrect information in state databases.
The research presentation is published here.
An extended research press release is available here.
The results of the population survey are published here.
The results of the business survey are published here.
The results of the analysis of complaints from the Open Dialogue portal are published here.
Research recommendations are available here.
The United Nations Development Program in Kazakhstan is a long-term partner of the government of Kazakhstan, cooperating with government agencies and non-governmental organizations in the prevention of corruption and the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, aimed, inter alia, at protecting the legitimate rights of citizens, accountability of state bodies and citizen involvement in the process decision making.